Smart Cities Responsive Intelligent Public Transport Systems

SCRIPTS | Mobility as a Service

In de toekomst zullen mensen hun verplaatsingen via openbaar vervoer, e-bikes en dergelijke als een ‘dienst’ kunnen bestellen. Dit onderzoek gaat na hoe dergelijke klantgerichte vervoersdiensten op een duurzame manier ontwikkeld kunnen worden, rekening houdend met voorkeuren van gebruikers en bedrijven.

Het consortium
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit Delft, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), Hogeschool Arnhem Nijmegen, Vervoersregio Amsterdam, gemeente Amsterdam, provincie Noord-Brabant, provincie Gelderland, GVB, Dat.mobility, TransDev, SynerScope, Athlon Car Lease

Projectleider
Prof. dr. Harry Timmermans, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

  • Vraagstelling

    Het smart city-concept benadrukt het gebruik van digitale technologie in het management van steden en mobiliteit. SCRIPTS heeft tot doel de mogelijkheden van deze technologie te onderzoeken in het ontwikkelen van nieuwe hybride openbaar vervoersystemen. Idee daarbij in de meest verstrekkende versie is dat een deel van het openbaar vervoer vraaggestuurd zal zijn. Daarnaast kunnen klanten een abonnement nemen op een bepaalde bundel van vervoersdiensten.

    Het succes en de gevolgen van deze nieuwe opties worden in onderlinge afhankelijk bepaald door strategische beslissingen en businessmodellen van vervoerders en providers van de dienst, de acceptatie van consumenten, de gedragsveranderingen die hiermee samenhangen en de intensiteit en aard van verschuivingen in verkeersstromen.

  • Deelprojecten

    Samen met overheden, vervoerders, en consultants, ontwikkelen de TUE, TUD, en RUN een reeks van modellen om te gevolgen van Mobility as a Service beter in te kunnen schatten. Co-creatie staat centraal. De partijen worden daarbij ondersteund door Hogeschool HAN, die tevens het project in dit opzicht evalueert.

    De RUN onderzoekt een aantal business modellen en scenario’s onder onzekerheid. De TUE analyseert de vraag en de effecten van bundeling. Modellen voor kortetermijnaanpassingen van de vraag en de effecten op activiteitenpatronen en vervoerwijzekeuzen, alsmede langetermijnadoptie en diffusie worden onderzocht. De veranderende vraag vormt de input voor de simulatie van de dynamische effecten op verkeersstromen en operationeel management van openbaar vervoersystemen.

    Daarnaast worden in Nijmegen, Eindhoven en Amsterdam een serie pilot projecten van diverse inhoud en complexiteit ontwikkeld. De pilots in Nijmegen lopen; met de andere zal binnenkort worden gestart.

  • Stand van zaken 2019 (in English)

    1. Tu/e long term demand: after conducting data based on experimental designs about the effects of bundling on consumer demand for MaaS, model estimations have been completed. Results suggest that the general interest is low. It is a bit highest among younger, technologically oriented people. As for competition, interest is higher among people who already use public transport, and who like the relative cheap option of using shared car and taxi. Interests in MaaS seems slightly higher in high urban area.

    2. Tu/e short term demand: because this project is affected by the delay in the start of the pilot and the lack of valuable data on the use of MaaS, stated choice data as opposed to the intended RP data have been collected. The data collected has been completed, but the analysis still has to start.

    3. Both PhD students of the TUD are now in the third year of their PhD studies and both are on-track to finalize their thesis within roughly 1.5 year from now. Jishnu has successfully developed a joint fixed-flexible public transport model in MATSim for the case of the Amsterdam area using activity-based demand data. He is currently finalizing a journal manuscript based on this work and submitted a conference paper based on the application of this model to extreme benchmark scenarios. Maria has devised a stated preferences and attitudes survey regarding mobility as a service and flexible services which were included in the MPN by KiM. Based on the data, choice models and latent cluster analysis have been estimated and results of which are currently used for preparing two journal manuscripts. Results based on the evaluation of the Brengflex pilot evaluation have been presented in national and international conferences and presented to stakeholders. A visiting student evaluated the performance of Mokumflex which is currently written down. The MATSim model scenarios are based on input on cases of interest to the local stakeholders. The TU Delft meets bi-annually with the Amsterdam based partners to discuss and share progress.

    5. Radboud University classified a number of business architectures for MaaS, including the Apple-model, the Bol.com-model and the eBay-model and assessed strengths and weaknesses for each. In addition, an innovation-model approach was applied to the introduction of a flexible public transport system called Breng Flex. We developed the first line of reasoning for the game-theoretic model.

    6. Radboud University developed a planning approach to cope with uncertainty surrounding the implementation of MaaS building upon Dynamic Adaptive Policymaking (DAP) framework, We utilise the Delphi technique as a method to gain a broadened perspective on the subject by involving a panel of global experts. We then contextualise our the plan through a participatory planning workshop with local stakeholders.

     

  • Pilots (in English)

    The Radboud University is affiliated with two pilot projects, carried out in Arnhem-Nijmegen. These pilots are developed in close collaboration with the regional partners and the HAN University of Applied Sciences.

     

    BRENG FLEX – Introducing a flexible public transport system in the region

    The pilot started in December 2016 and it offers stop-to-stop connection with a total of 255 stops. The service area includes the city of Nijmegen and the neighboring municipalities of Wijchen, Berg en Dal and Oosterhout, with a total of approximately 200,000 inhabitants. Breng flex is run by Breng, the incumbent local bus operator and partner within SCRIPTS. Simultaneously with its introduction, two bus lines that linked the municipality of Wijchen, traversed the central parts of Nijmegen and terminated at the northern part of Nijmegen, were cancelled. The Breng flex service has a fixed price of 3.50 € per person and operates from 6:30 to 24:00 during the weekdays, 8:00 to 24:00 on Saturdays and 9:00 to 24:00 on Sundays (25). The fleet comprises of five minibuses (maximum of five seats for passengers and two wheelchairs) and four electric cars (maximum of three seats for passengers). Rides can be booked in real-time via a mobile app or a telephone number, and no advance booking option is available. Maximum waiting time is set to 20 minutes, rides that cannot be served within this time window will not be accepted. After evaluation, it was decided to continue with its operation.

     

    SL!M Heijendaal

    This pilots offers MaaS-services to associates and students of the Radboud University, the HAN University of Applied Sciences and the ROC. A project proposal for this pilot was written and accepted by Steering Groups of regional partners. A provider of platform services was selected (GoAbout) and lauching subsidies were provided by the province and the city. In addition the educational partners agreed to buy 200 subscriptions each as a start. This pilot is expected to start around April 2018 with first groups of users. These pilots were developed in close association with the BRENG Knowledge Center, in which the regional partners are cooperating. All regional stakeholders are involved throughout the innovation process. In addition, NS agreed to participate in the MaaS pilot Heijendaal. This project started execution in september 2018 and proved to be successfull in terms of testing technology and learning about communication and initial effects on mobility. Only recently (february 2019) all partners agreed upon extending this pilot.

  • Overzicht publicaties

    Op de website van SCRIPTS staat een actueel overzicht van alle Nederlandstalige en Engelstalige publicaties.

    Op de website van NWO staan bovendien apart de publicaties vermeld die de Hogeschool Arnhem-Nijmegen heeft uitgebracht.

  • Themanummer Tijdschrift Vervoerwetenschap (februari 2020)

    In dit nummer zijn verschillende artikelen gebaseerd op SCRIPTS-onderzoek. Lees alles op de Tijdschrift Vervoerswetenschap.